Chisholm* Ch. 4

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Also known as... "Knowing That One Knows"


Chapter/Section of: Chisholm*

Chapter/Section: 4

Where to find it: Anthony Celi (045) owns this Course Text

Author(s): Roderick Chisholm

Type of reading: Course Text

Who's read this? Herbert Chapman

Short Summary

In this chapter, Chisholm discusses the questions "What do we know?" and "How do we decide in any particular case whether we know?" He brings up the point that one does not need to be an epistemologist to know that one knows; he makes reference to that Prichard quote, "Whenever we know something, we either do, or at least can, by reflecting, directly know that we are knowing it." Chisholm uses normative states, their objectives, and their substrates in order to discuss how one knows that they know. He also addresses higher order normative states, and says that if Knowledge = Justified True Belief, than one cannot know that one knows a given proposition unless one is justified in believing that one is justified in believing.

Key terms & concepts

Knowledge, Knowing, A priori, H. A. Prichard, Normative states, normative judgments, objectives, substrates

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